Country Profile
RegulatorMyanmar Communications Regulatory Commission
MinistryMinistry of Posts and Telecommunications

Brief About Myanmar

The Republic of the Union of Myanmar, commonly shortened to Myanmar.


  • The total land area of 676,577 square kilometre
  • International borders of 5858 Kilometer with Bangladesh, India, China, Thailand and Laos
  • total coastal line length 2832kilometer
  • 2090 kilometre (north to south )and 925 kilometres (east to west )


  • 50% of mountains and forests (northern and eastern)


  • Over 51.49 million Population
  • 135 ethnic groups
  • Seven states and seven Regions
  • 70% of the population lived in rural areas and occupied in agriculture sectors

Natural Resources

  • Rice, minerals, teak, hardwood forest, onshore and offshore oil fields, and precious stones such as rubies, jade sapphires, and pearls with the highest quality

Telecommunications Sector Reform

Policy Reform

  • The Myanmar Telegraph Act 1885, The Myanmar Wireless Telegraph Act 1934 –> Telecommunications Law 2013
  • Telecommunication Service License (Chapter III of Telecommunication Law) –> Anyone who is willing to provide telecommunications facilities and/or telecommunication services shall apply for permission and license

Key Objectives of Licensing Regime

  • Promote competition and liberalization of the telecom sector in Myanmar
  • Ensure transparency in market entrance
  • Establish technology-and-service neutral approach to licensing
  • Ensure non-discriminatory treatment of similarly situated licensees

Laws and Regulations

Sr. No Name Issued Date
1. Telecommunication Law 8-10-2013
2. Licensing Rules 14-10-2014
3. Interconnection Rules 6-1-2015
4. Competition Rules 9-6-2015
5. Numbering Rules 3-12-2015
6. Spectrum Rules 7-3-2015

Licensing Framework Multi-service licensing framework ° to simplify licensing

Processes ° encourage entry and expansion of services and ° increase End-User access to Telecommunications Networks and Telecommunications Services.

License Type NFS (I) NS AS NFS (C)

Maximum of two Telecommunications Service Licenses NFS (C) + NS OR AS

Licensing Category

NFS license (not exhaustive)

  • Terrestrial fixed-line and radio transmission
  • Submarine cable facilities
  • Satellite earth station facilities
  • Mobile base station facilities and passive infrastructure to deploy networks

NS license (not exhaustive)

  • Wireline connectivity services
  • Terrestrial wireless connectivity services
  • Satellite uplink/downlink connectivity services
  • International and domestic network transport and switching services
  • International gateway services

AS license (not exhaustive)

  • Public payphone services
  • Public switched data services
  • Audio text hosting services provided on an opt-in basis
  • Directory services
  • Internet service provider services
  • Messaging services and Value-added services

NFS(C) (not exhaustive)

  • Towers, masts, ducts
  • Trenches and poles
  • Dark fibre

Type of License and Licensees

Sr.Type of License Number of Licensees
1. Nationwide Telecommunications License 2 2 4
2. Network Facilities Service (Individual) License (NFS-I) 35 11 46
3. Network Facilities Service (Class) License (NFS-C) 25 16 41
4. Application Service License ( AS ) 17 4 21
5. Network Service License ( NS) 9 6 15
Total 88 39 127

National Policy

Myanmar Telecommunications Masterplan

The Myanmar Telecommunications Masterplan includes several references to universal service and the USF. Key connectivity targets for 2020 are as follows:
1) Over 90% of Myanmar population covered by a telecommunications network;
2) Over 85% of Myanmar population covered by a network that provides internet access;
3) Over 50% of Myanmar population with access to a high-speed internetconnection.

Telecom Policy and ICT Policy

Telecom Policy

  • To increase the deployment of national IT infrastructure
  • To provide a financially viable telecommunications sector conducive to sustainable investment in telecommunications
  • infrastructure
  • To improve the efficiency and effectiveness of telecommunications service delivery to end-users
  • To provide telecommunication services at the affordable price
  • To fulfil universal services obligation to the people of Myanmar

ICT Policy

  • To promote cooperation for ICT development
  • To enhance competitiveness of the ICT sectors
  • To promote cooperation to reduce digital divide
  • To promote cooperation between State and private sectors
  • To increase the availability of information technologies to all the citizens of our country

E-Government Master Plan (2016-2020)

  • MCIT has started the preparation of Myanmar e-Governance Master Plan with the support of ADB and Infosys Ltd in 2014
  • Revised in 2016
  • Implement by MOTC with the cooperation of the international Consultants from IDA and KPMG in 2016

Guidelines for the implementation of e-Government

  • Intended to extend utility based on existing resources. (e.g., e-Government network will be built on existing fibre network along the

railway and road)

  • To ensure that G2G, G2B and G2C services should meet the utility needs of citizens and businesses

Assessment of ICT and e-Government Policies

  • Computer Science Development Law (1996)
  • Electronic Transaction Law (2004), Amended (2014);
  • The Telecommunications law (2013)

Economic Policy for ICT

  • One of the National Objectives in August 2016
  • To establish
    • Data ID Card System,
    • Digital Government Strategy and
    • e-Government system

DEDC Master Plan – 7 Key Sectors

1.Education and Learning
2.Healthcare and Welfare sector
3.Financial Services sector
4.Agriculture sector
5.Manufacturing sector
6.Tourism, Hospitality and Retail sector
7.Government services

Note: Digital Economy Development Committee (DEDC)

Operator Licensing


License Type Applied for or Applied by Ministry Approval Union Government Approval Processing Timeline
NFS (I) Int’l Gateway Or Foreign person Yes Yes 90 days
Otherwise Yes No 60 days
NS Foreign person Yes Yes 90 days
Otherwise Yes No 60 days
NFS (C) Foreign person Yes Yes 60 days
Otherwise Yes No 30 days
AS Foreign person Yes Yes 60 days
Otherwise Yes No 30 days

Technical and Administrative Requirements


The Posts and Telecommunications Department (“Telecommunications Department”) under the Ministry of Transport and Communications (“MOTC”) is the telecommunications regulator in Myanmar.

The responsibilities of the Telecommunications Department include:-

  • the issuance and renewal of service provider licences;
  • regulation of the frequency spectrum and numbering plans;
  • ensuring consumer protection;
  • inspection and supervision of service providers;
  • initiating administrative actions against service providers.

As part of sector reforms, the MOTC is authorised to establish the following bodies:-

National Telecommunications Advisory Committee

  • Make recommendations on technical standards, consumer protection and strategic development of the telecommunications sector in Myanmar,
  • To hear administrative appeals against the MOTC’s decisions.

Licensing Fees

Access to Spectrum

Technical and Administrative Requirements


Access Networks
Operator 800MHz 900MHz 1800MHz 2100MHz 2600MHz 3500MHz
XYZcom None 2×10 2×15 2×10 None None
PtP Networks


Access Networks
Frequency Power Limit Transmit Power
2400 – 2483.5 MHz 2.4EIRP
5150-5250 MHz 5.1EIRP
5250-5350 MHz 5.2EIRP
5470-5725 MHz 5.4EIRP
5725-5800 MHz 5.8EIRP
PtP Networks
Frequency Power Limit Transmit Power
2400 – 2483.5 MHz 2.4EIRP
5150-5250 MHz 5.1EIRP
5250-5350 MHz 5.2EIRP
5470-5725 MHz 5.4EIRP
5725-5800 MHz 5.8EIRP

Secondary Use

Access Networks
PtP Networks

Spectrum Fees / Costs


All telecom and communication license application process and fees

Licensing and Inspection Division



Telecommunications Infrastructure (August, 2017)

Indicator Statistic / Description
Telecom Operator 4 (2 from domestic, 2 from International)
National Fiber Backbone 549,55.23 Kilometer
International Submarine Cable SEA-ME-WE-3, SEA-ME-WE-5, AAE1 (Ongoing Project)
Cross-border Fiber China – Myanmar, India-Myanmar, Lao-Myanmar, Thailand – Myanmar(4 Links)
International Bandwidth 324.10 Gbps
International Gateway 5
Tower Over 18,000 towers
Number of Telephone Fixed Phone - 0.52 million, Mobile Phone - 55.61 million, Total - 56.13 million
Telephone density 108.56 %
Internet Users 46.39 Million
Internet Penetration 89.73%


Universal Service

What is Universal Service?

* a policy goal to ensure that all people in a country have access and are able to use telecommunications services. * in particular for people living in rural and remote parts of the country and poorer households.

Specific objectives of USF

Collect funds ⇒ Design programs & projects ⇒ Finance those projects / disburse ⇒ Monitor implementation ⇒ Evaluate impact ⇒ Consult stakeholders throughout ⇒ Publish results ⇒ Publish results

Scope of Universal Service

Issue Basic meaning Specification
Availability All inhabitants have service available Coverage of inhabited geographic territory
· Region /area
· Locality size (e.g., towns, villages,
settlements with varying number of inhabitants)
Accessibility All inhabitants can access the service Gender
· Race, tribe, religion
· Ability /disability
Affordability All inhabitants can afford to pay · Access device (e.g., mobile phone)
· Cost of calls & services
· Minimum “basket” below a certain
national limit (e.g., 3% of family income)
Ability All inhabitants have the telecom services With increasing focus on the broadband
Internet, user capabilities become important
· Awareness of services and their benefits
· Ability to use computers & devices
· Ability to navigate the Internet & use ICT

Universal Service Strategy Outcomes

  • Increasing & accelerating Voice and Internet broadband provision.
  • More people have access to services & applications, as well as the capacity to use them.
  • Creating opportunities for both economic & social growth.

Program 1 Infrastructure Roll-out: Voice & Broadband


  • Operators will reach at least 94% by Q1, 2019
  • Target: within 5 years 99% of the population to be covered by mobile signal
  • Service for an additional 3.2 million people

Broadband Internet

  • Target: 95% of the population will have broadband Internet within 5 years
  • Total estimated subsidy cost USD 25.4 million

Program 2 ICT Capacity Building: Enabling the Digital Future


  • Increase capacity of population to use the Internet for their socio-economic benefit and Myanmar development
  • Many links between increased ICT capacity and economic growth and social development

Two Sub-Programs

  • Broadband Internet connectivity for various learning & other institutions
  • Digital literacy project with eligible local organizations

Program 3 Special Programs


  • integrate other aspects of universal service which won’t fit in Program 1&2
  • Explore new approaches to be used later in mainstream program

Types of Special Projects

  • ICT content, service or application for development for rural users/ lower income groups
  • Improved access/ usability for persons with disabilities
  • Small pilot for broadband connectivity (e.g., rural hospitals)
  • Any other pilot or research projects

Proposed Pilot

  • Funding to translate special software to assist persons with disabilities to use
  • ICT – RFP process

USF Progress

  • Universal Service Strategy (Final)
  • Guideline for USF
  • Public Consultation
  • Implementing Pilot Project
  • Implementing Universal Service Strategy

Laws and Regulations

THE TELECOMS LAW The Telecommunications Law No. 31/2013 (“Telecoms Law”) was introduced on 8 October 2013, providing a modern regulatory framework for Myanmar’s telecommunications sector. The Telecoms Law regulates network facility services, network service providers and application service providers.

THE LICENSING RULES The Telecoms Law is supplemented by Notification No. 16/2014 (Licensing Rules) issued by the then Ministry of Communications and Information Technology of the Union Government (MCIT), which introduced rules and regulations in respect of licensing as well as the implementing regulations to the Telecoms Law. The Telecoms Law and Licensing Rule have been augmented by the following legislation

Note: MCIT reorganized as Ministry of Transport and Communications (MOTC) Notification No. 9/2016 (25 May 2016)

Legislation Date
Interconnection and Access Rules 6 January 2015
Telecoms Competition Rules 9 June 2015
The Numbering Rules 3 December 2015
The Spectrum Rules 7 March 2016
Technical Specifications for Short Range Device 17 July 2016
Guidelines on the Provision of International Gateway Services 8 September 2016
Telecommunications Numbering Plan 31 January 2017
The Technical Specification and Quality of Service for International Gateway Service 5 April 2017
Draft Myanmar Communications Regulatory Commission Law (MCRC Law) 15 May 2017
The Law Amending the Telecommunication Law 18 August 2017

Other laws and regulations related to Telecom sector in Myanmar

Year Law and Regulation
October, 1885 Myanmar Telegraph Act (India Act XIII)1
January, 1934 Myanmar Wireless Telegraph Act (India Act XVII)2
March, 1989 State-owned Economic Enterprises Law3
October, 1993 Amendment of Myanmar Wireless Telegraph Act4
September, 1996 Computer Science Development Law5
April, 2004 Electronic Transactions Law6
January, 2011 Myanmar Special Economic Zone Law7
October, 2013 Telecommunications Law8
December, 2013 Licensing rules9, Interconnection and access rules10,
Spectrum rules11, Numbering rules12 and
Competition rules13

Resources / References

country-profiles/myanmar.txt · Last modified: 2023/06/18 11:59
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